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APUSH Chapters 25-31

Jane Addams
an American social worker, sociologist, philosopher and reformer. She was also the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, and a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement.

Florence Kelley
An advocate for improving the lives of women and children. (Social Welfare).
Chief inspector of factories in Illinois.
Won passage of the Illinois factory act in 1893 which prohibited child labor and limited women’s working hours.

Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book “Up from Slavery.”

W.E.B. Du Bois
African American who believed Blacks should fight segregation; pushed for higher education opportunities for Blacks to achieve economic independence; helped to found the NAACP

Horatio Alger
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote “rags to riches” books praising the values of hard work

Mark Twain
Master of satire. A regionalist writer who gave his stories “local color” through dialects and detailed descriptions. His works include The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, “The Amazing Jumping Frog of Calaverus County,” and stories about the American West.

Carrie Chapman Catt
Spoke powerfully in favor of suffrage, worked as a school principal and a reporter, became head of the National American Woman Suffrage, an inspiried speaker and abrilliant organizer. Devised a detailed battle plan for fighting the war of suffrage.

Charles W. Eliot
The president of Harvard in 1869, he reduced the number of required courses and introduced electives to accommodate the teaching of modern languages and the sciences.

Emily Dickinson
Wrote poetry with simple words of love, life, nature and death sometimes with deep meanings written during her social and her reclusive years.

Jack London
A young California writer and adventurer who portrayed the conflict between nature and civilization in his novels.

William F. Cody
A Civil War Veteran who became popularly known as “Buffalo Bill” and perpetuated a romanticized view of the Wild West.

settlement house
Institution located in a poor neighborhood that provided numerous community services such as medical care, child care, libraries, and classes in English

social gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.

nativism
the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners

evolution
a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)

yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

paperbacks
started in 1940s, sales exceeded hardbacks in 1960 and today makes up about 60% of the market

Hull House
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.

The Origin of Species
1859: Charles Darwin’s book explained how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce

Salvation Army
a charitable and religious organization to evangelize and to care for the poor and homeless

Christian Science
A Christian sect founded by Mary Baker Eddy in the 19th century. They believe that sickness and sin are not ordained by God and can be overcome by praying; hence they are known for refusing to accept medicine or treatment by doctors.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP); Founded by W.E.B Du Bois in 1910 in order to help create more social and economic opportunities for blacks

Morrill Act
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college; as a result 69 land- grant institutions were established.

Comstock Law
is a United States federal law which made it illegal to send any “obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious” materials through the mail, including contraceptive devices and information

Sitting Bull
An American Indian (ca. 1834-1890), a Hunkpapa Sioux medicine man and chief, was the political leader of his tribe at the time of the Custer massacre and during the Sioux War of 1875-1876.

George A. Custer
United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. defeated and killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876, against a coalition of Native American tribes composed almost exclusively of Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho warriors. “Last Stand”

Chief Joseph
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations.

Geronimo
Apache leader who fought U.S. soldiers to keep his land. He led a revolt of 4,000 of his people after they were forced to move to a reservation in Arizona.

Helen Hunt Jackson
United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans

William F. Cody
Aka Buffalo Bill, he was an American adventurer, soldier, and showman of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His popular “Wild West Show,” begun in the 1880s, featured acts such as the marksmanship of Annie Oakley, mock battles between Native Americans and army troops, and breathtaking displays of cowboy skills and horsemanship.

Oliver H. Kelley
(GC), considered the “Father” of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as “The Grange”). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.

William Hope Harvey
Wrote a popular pamphlet titled Coin’s Financial School; this pamphlet overwhelmed the bankers and professors of economics with his brilliant arguments on behalf of free silver

Mary Elizabeth Lease
became well known during the early 1890’s for her actions as a speaker for the populist party. She was a tall, strong woman who made numerous and memorable speeches on behalf of the downtrodden farmer. She denounced the money-grubbing government and encouraged farmers to speak their discontent with the economic situation.

Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.

James B. Weaver
He was a general during the Civil War. He was chosen as the presidential candidate of the Populist party. He was a Granger with an apt for public speaking. He only ended up getting three percent of the popular votes which is really a large number for a third party candidate.

Jacob S. Coxey
Wealthy Ohio quarry owner who marched on Washington in 1894, demanding that government relieve unemployment by an inflationary public works program. His “Commonwealth Army” was arrested for walking on the grass of the capital.

Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.

William McKinley
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism.

Marcus Alonzo Hanna
Used the money he made in the iron business to support William McKinley’s presidential campaign. He became a personification of big business in politics.

William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)

Sioux Wars
lasted from 1876-1877. These were spectacular clashes between the Sioux Indians and white men. They were spurred by gold-greedy miners rushing into Sioux land. The white men were breaking their treaty with the Indians. The Sioux Indians wre led by Sitting Bull and they were pushed by Custer’s forces. Custer led these forces until he was killed at the battle at Little Bighorn. Many of the Indian were finally forced into Canada, where they were forced by starvation to surrender.

Nez Percé
a group of Indians named for their pierced noses; one of their leaders was Chief Joseph, who was brilliant in retreating his people and hiding them from U.S. troops; Chief Joseph eventually surrendered

Apache
Native American-Indian tribe; 1870’s; group from Arizona and New Mexico led by Geronimo were difficult to control; chased into Mexico by Federal troops; they became successful farmers raising stock in Oklahoma

Ghost Dance
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead, Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee

Battle of Wounded Knee
the massacre by U.S. soldiers of 300 unarmed Native Americans at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota, in 1890

Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes

Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse at this battle

Buffalo Soldiers
Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s

Comstock Lode
Rich deposits of silver found in Nevada in 1859.

Long Drive
name for the moving of cattle across the plains to the railroad terminals

Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.

Sooner State
Oklahoma’s nickname because about 500.000 people illegal entered that state before it became an offical state in 1907

Safety-valve theory
This states that when hard times hit, the unemployed move west, took up farming and became prosperous. With the close of the frontier the less fortunate had no place to start a new life, thus leading to urban overcrowding and inner city problems.

Bonanza farms
Large scale farms often over 50,000 acres, where farmers set up companies to operate

National Grange
The more common name of the Patrons of Husbandry—this organization was formed in 1867 as a support system for struggling western farmers. This organization was a educational and social organization, but under the leadership of Oliver Kelley, this organization began to lobby state and federal governments for legislation that would protect farmers from the effects of big business.

Granger Laws
Grangers state legislatures in 1874 passed law fixing maximum rates for freight shipments. The railroads responded by appealing to the Supreme Court to declare these laws unconstitutional

Farmers’ Alliance
This was the first “national” organization of the farmers, which led to the creation of the Populist party. It sponsored social gatherings, were active in politics, organized cooperatives, and fought against the dominance of the railroads and manufacturers.

Colored Farmers National Alliance
More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same organization.

Populist (people’s) party
founded in 1892 advocated variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of railroads, and direct election of U.S. senators

Coin’s Financial School
popular pamphlet written by William Hope Harvey that portrayed pro-silver arguments triumphing over the traditional views of bankers and economics professors

Coxey’s Army
1893 – Group of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey who marched from Ohio to Washington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for government relief. Government arrested the leaders and broke up the march in Washington.

Pullman Strike
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.

Cross of Gold speech
An address given by Bryan, the Democratic presidential nominee during the national convention of the Democratic party, it criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver. His beliefs were popular with debt-ridden farmers.

Gold Bugs
a person who believes that American currency should be based on a gold standard

“16 to 1”
The ratio of silver to gold promoted by Bryan’s Democratic political platform in 1896.

“fourth party system”
New party system that emerged in 1896 after the McKinley/Bryan election; marked the end of a large scale effort to gain agrarian votes, diminished voter participation, weakening of party organization, & fading issues of money & civil service reform

Dingley Tariff Bill
Raised tariff pushed through in 1897 by Republicans who had contributed strongly to Mark Hanna’s campaign. Lobbyists raised the average rates to 46.5 percent.

Gold Standard Act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.

Josiah Strong/Our Country:Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis
championed superiority of Anglo-Saxons, encouraged Americans to spread religion to backward peoples

Captain Alfred Mahan/The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
control of the seas is necessary for world dominance, economy, strategy…

Pan-American Conference 1889
James G. Blaine wanted to trade with Latin America, sketched outline for low tariff…

the Great Rapproachement
cooling of tensions between GB and US, reconciliation because English anger focused on Germany and other Euro. powers…

Hawaii
islands that the US coveted as a provision center, military base and sugar plantation…

Pearl Harbor
US has naval base rights here since 1887…

Queen Liliuokalani
Hawaii’s queen that refused to let the US control the islands. She was eventually overthrown by whites…

Cuba
Spanish controlled, useful for sugar, US had lots of money invested here, wanted independence from Spain…

insurrectos
rebels who created havoc in trying to drive out the Spanish. scorched-earth policy…

yellow journalism
scorching headlines and scoops instead of hard facts. Pulitzer vs Hearst…

USS Maine
battleship to “visit”/protect, Americans in Cuba. eventually sunk…

Teller Amendment
if the US wins the Spanish-American war, the US will promptly give Cuba its freedom…

Commodore George Dewey/Manila Bay
soldier vs defeated Spanish, ordered by Roosevelt to go to Philippines to fight war. Quickly destroyed Spanish fleets @ Manila Bay …

Emilio Aguinaldo
Chinese-Filipino leader of insurgents who sided with Americans to fight Spain’s stronghold on them…

Santiago Harbor
Spanish sent weak Cervera to fight Americans in Cuba. Easily defeated by the US Cervera vs William Shafter’s ill equipt “Rough Riders”, commanded by T-Roosevelt…

Rough Riders
part of Shafter’s invading army, withstood very difficult obstacles in war. no hourses…

Foraker Act 1900
gave Puerto Ricans limited degree of self government. American regime worked wonders for PR…

Platt Amendment
Cubans were forced to wire their own constitution in 1901…

Guantanamo
Cubans sold this base to the US still used today, can only be undone by 2 parties, Cuba + US…

John Philip Sousa
wrote popular military marching music…

Manchu government
the government in charge of China in the early 20th century…

Johny Hay/Open Door
Hay urged that people should respect Chinese rights and have fair competition with other countries. Anyone can trade every nation given = ops to trade…

Boxers/Boxer Rebellion
Patriotic Chinese group, martial arts, ill foreign devils, took over Beijing, murdered Christians and foreigns…

“Speak softly & carry a big stick”
motto of Teddy Roosevelt, successor of McKinley, one must be affirmative in how they do his jobs at being president…

Hay-Paunceforte Treaty 1901
gave United States right to build and fortify the canal. Britain approved…

New Panama Canal Company
company that undertook the job of building it. $40 million to build…

Panama
Site of canal, next to Columbia which did not approve of the canal. US created rebellion here…

Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
if LA countries can’t pay back loans, the US steps into help. Keep Europe out of equation

Great White Fleet
16 batallions from VA sailed to Japan, Hawaii, LA, New Zealand to show how great America is

Root-Takahira Agreement
uphold Open Door and for each other to respect Pacific territory…

“Australian” Ballot
This secret ballot was likewise being introduced more widely in the states to counteract boss rule. Bribery was less feasible when bribes couldn’t tell if the were getting their money’s worth from the bribed.

“Conservation” Movement
Acts like the Desert Land Act of 1877, Forest Reserve Act of 1891, and the Carey Act of 1894 were passed. Also the Newlands Act of 1902 was passed to collect money from the sale of public lands.

“Dry” Laws
Controlled, restricted, or abolished alcohol.

“Rule of Reason”
This doctrine held that only those combinations that “unreasonably” restrained trade were illegal. This fine-print proviso ripped a huge hole in the government’s antitrust net.

“Square Deal”
A deal for capital, labor, and the public at large. The three C’s involved were control of the corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources.

City Manager System
Presented in Galveston, TX in 1901. Expert staffed commissions to manage urban affairs. Also designed to take politics out of municipal administration.

Dollar Diplomacy
This was basically Taft encouraging Wall Street bankers to sluice their surplus dollars into foreign areas of strategic concern to the United States, especially in the Far East and in the regions critical to the security of the Panama Canal.

18th Amendment
Prohibition. Demon rum was groggy and about to be floored by this amendment.

Elkins Act
In 1903, Congress passed this. It was aimed primarily at the rebate evil. Heavy fines could now be imposed both on the railroads that gave rebates and on the shippers that accepted them.

Eugene V. Debs
Hero of the Pullman strike, he won 420,793 voters in the election of 1908 for his socialist party… even though he didn’t win, this was cool.

Frances Willard and WCTU
This was an antiliquor campaign. It was the largest organization of women in the world. Allied with the Anti-Saloon League.

Hepburn Act
In 1906, Congress passed this. More effective than the Elkins Act of 1903, it restricted free passes. It expanded the ICC and made the ICC reach to include express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines. The commission could now nullify existing rates and stipulate maximum rates.

Ida Tarbell
One of the leading muckrakers. He/She wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company in 1904.

Initiative
Progressives favored this so that voters could directly propose legislation themselves, thus bypassing the boss-bought state legislatures.

Jacob A. Riis
He wrote How the Other Half Lives. This book influenced TR later on. The book was about an indictment of the dirt, disease, vice, and misery of the rat-gnawed human rookeries known at the NY slums.

John Muir
This guy was a preservationist of the Sierra Club, and the federal government wanted to build a dam in the Hetch Hetchy valley in Yosemite National park.

Lochner V. New York
Invalidated a New York Law establishing a ten hour day for bakers.

Meat Inspection Act of 1906
This consumer progressive act was passed in 1906. It decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection from corral to can. This act originated from details in the Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair.

Muckrakers
These people targeted the malpractices of life insurance companies and tariff lobbies. They attack the beef trust, the money trust, the railroad barons, and the corrupt amassing of American fortunes

Muller V. Oregon
Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers.

Northern Securities Case
Led by J.P. Morgan and James. J Hill, Roosevelt attacked this railroad holding company. In 1904, the court decided that Roosevelt was correct and this company was dissolved.

Old Guard
Taft embraced this group. This was the republican group. Country Club Republicans. Non-progressive republicans.

Payne-Aldrich Tariff
Taft signed this tariff bill, thus betraying his campaign promises and outraging the progressive wing of his party, heavily drawn from the Midwest.

Pure Food and Drug Act
In 1906, this was passed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and drugs. It went along with the meat inspection act, and all this was brought up by the Jungle, written by Upton Sinclair.

Recall
This would enable voters to remove faithless elected officials, particularly those who had been bribed by bosses or lobbyists.

Referendum
Progressives also wanted this. This device would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people, especially laws that had been railroaded through a compliant legislature by free-spending agents of big business.

Robert M. La Follette
Governor of Wisconsin, was the most militant of the progressive Republican leaders. He reached the governor’s chair in 1901. He wrested considerable control from the crooked corporations and returned it to the people. He also perfected a scheme for regulating public utilities, while laboring in close association with experts on the faculty of the state university at Madison.

17th Amendment
Direct election of senators

The Social Gospel
Messengers of this promoted a brand of progressivism based on Christian teachings. They used religious doctrine to demand better housing and living conditions for the urban poor. Women suffrage was added.

Triangle Shirtwaist company fire
A factory in 1911 was caught on fire. Locked doors and other violations of the fire code turned the factory into a death trap. This caused the Legislature to pass much stronger laws regulating the hours and conditions of sweatshop toil.

Upton Sinclair
He wrote, The Jungle, which was meant to focus attention on the plight of the workers, but instead disgusted the public with the description of the meat. This led to future acts such as the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.

William Howard Taft
He signed the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, and he split the Republican party. He was the successor of Theodore Roosevelt. He pressed a antitrust suit against the Standard Oil Company and U.S. steel.

16th Amendment
Graduated Income Tax

19th Amendment
Women Suffrage

Alfred Thayer Mahan
United States naval officer and historian. (1840-1914)

Valeriano Weyler
General sent by Spain to stop Cuban revolt, referred to as the “Butcher” because of harsh tactics “concentration camps, shooting civilian, etc.”

Dupuy de Lome
A Spanish ambassador to the United States. Through the so-called De Lôme Letter, he defamed U.S. President William McKinley, an act which eventually contributed to the Spanish-American War.

Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States. 1901-1909 Republican, crushed trust, square deal, patriotism, felt for the people.

George Dewey
A United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War; U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines.

Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino who was lead both the Phillipine revolution against Spain and then the United States.

John Hay
Secretary of State under McKinley and Roosevelt who pioneered the open-door policy and Panama canal.

Philippe Bunau-Varilla
French engineer who advocated an American canal through Panama and helped instigate a Panamanian rebellion against Colombia.

George Washington Goethals
United States army officer and engineer who supervised the construction of the Panama Canal (1858-1928)

jingoism
Extreme patriotism; favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy.

imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.

Pan-American Conference
Conference called by James Blaine that created an organization of cooperation between the US and Latin American countries.

U.S.S. Maine
The sinking of this U.S. battleship in Havanna, Cuba which the U.S. blamed on Spain was the main cause of the Spanish-American War.

Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war.

Rough Riders
Volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War.

Treaty of Paris
treaty that ended Spanish-American War. Spain gave over Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam

Anti-Imperialist League
Group that argued against American imperialism in the late 1890s. It’s members included Andrew Carnegie and Mark Twain.

Foraker Act
Gave the US direct control over and power to set up a government in Puerto Rico.

insular cases
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.

Platt amendment
Specified when the US could intervene in Cuban affairs.

Philippine insurrection
A rebellion before the Spanish American War when there were tensions between the Filippinos and the US.

Open Door Policy
Secretary John Hay, for free trade (especially in China).Prevent other countries from carving out China for their own, US wanted to protect their trade opportunities (besides the moral issue behind it)

Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

big-stick diplomacy
Theodore Roosevelt’s policy of negotiating peacefully while carrying a big stick (or the use of military.)

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
U.S. and Great Britain agreed that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama.

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
(TR) , negotiations with Colombia, six mile strip of land in Panama, $10 million, US could dig canal without British involvement.

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
1903 – U.S. guaranteed the independence of the newly-created Republic of Panama.

Panama Canal
Connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, built from 1904 – 1914.

Roosevelt Corollary
Addition to the Monroe Doctrine asserting America’s right to intervene in Latin American affairs

Russo-Japanese War
A 1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries’ efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea

Portsmouth Conference
Settled the Russo-Japanese war over Manchuria, and was set up by Teddy Roosevelt.

Gentlemen’s Agreement
1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration.

Great White Fleet
16 American battleships, painted white, sent around the world to display American naval power.

Root-Takahira Agreement
The US and Japan pledged themselves to respect each other’s territorial possessions and to respect China’s territory

Zimmermann Note (1917)
Secret German message to Mexico (intercepted by the US) which offered to return to Mexico the lands it lost in the Mexican-American War.

Fourteen Points (1918)
A list of foreign policy goals which Woodrow Wilson hoped to achieve in the aftermath of World War I

Committee on Public Info
Established by Woodrow Wilson and headed by George Creel, this was the Federal group that worked on producing and distributing pro-war propaganda to the US people.

(George) Creel
Head of the Committee on Public Info, this man used many techniques to persuade the public to support the war.

“Huns”
Derogatory term used to describe the ‘barbaric’ Central Powers as seen by the US people.

Espionage Act (1917)
Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during World War 1

Sedition Act (1918)
Added to Espionage Act, this act deemed “disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language” about the American form of government, the Constitution, the flag, or the armed forces as criminal and worthy of prosecution– the reason why Eugene V. Debs was imprisoned.

Schenck v. United States (1919)
A legal case in which it was ruled that government can limit free speech if the speech provokes a “clear and present danger” of substantive evils.

(Bernard) Baruch
A Wall Street broker before being chosen by President Wilson in 1918 to head the War Industries Board. He helped the U.S. Manage war production.

War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.

(Samuel) Gompers
Leader of the AF of L for almost his entire life, this man was very outspoken in favor of the war.

AFL (American Federation of Labor)
A union of many labor unions into one, this establishment accomplished much for its members. Loyally supported the Great War.

IWW (Industrial Workers of the World)
A labor union for industrial laborers, this group performed many acts of industrial sabotage in pursuit of its goals. Openly opposed the Great War.

Steel Strike of 1919
A work stoppage that began when some 365,000 steelworkers in Pennsylvania walked off the job to demand recognition of their union, higher wages, and shorter hours.

Chicago Race Riot (1919)
Major racial conflict that began in Chicago, Illinois on July 27, 1919 and ended on August 3. Resulted in some white deaths and many black deaths.

National Woman’s Party
Was formed in 1916. A more militant approach to gaining votes by some women. Took to streets with mass pickets, parades, and hunger strikes. Their leader was Alice Paul.

(Alice) Paul
Woman’s suffrage leader who helped form the National Woman’s Party. Organized many walks and rallies.

NAWSA (National American Women’s Suffrage Association)
Created in 1890 when the two leading suffragist organizations united and settled their differences. Led by Carrie Chapman Catt, this organization supported the War, saying that woman should do their part to ensure peace.

(Carrie Chapman) Catt
Leader of the National American Woman’s Suffrage Association. Fought passionately for suffrage.

Food Administration
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and to ration food for the military.

(Herbert) Hoover
Later elected president of the United States, this Quaker-humanitarian was the head of the Food Administration and attained an amazingly positive reputation all over the world for his help in feeding the hungry.

volunteerism
A general term, but specifically referring to the American spirit of noncompulsory personal contribution to the war effort during World War I. Examples of this include “wheatless Wednesdays”, “meatless Tuesdays”, and “Victory Gardens”.

victory gardens
Private gardens which American citizens were encouraged to create as a source of food during the war period.

Liberty Bonds
Government bonds sold to gain money for World War I

Selective Service Act (1917)
This Act required all men between 21-30 years to register for the military. Each received a number, and draftees were chosen like a lottery. In contrast to the Union’s civil war conscription, there was no way for men to “opt out” of this draft.

Russian Revolution
The revolution that overthrew Czar Nicholas I in 1917. Later established a socialist government under Vladimir Lenin.

Archangel Expedition
An allied invasion of northern Russia (after Russia pulled out of the war), the purpose of which was to prevent German seizure of munitions there. Named for the location where Americans landed.

doughboys
A nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI

gas warfare
Warfare waged using toxic airborne weapons (eg. Mustard Gas) that caused blindness, skin blisters, and choking to death

trench warfare
The primary form of combat used in World War I. Led to a horrendously large amount of bloodshed, as it resulted in stalemates which could only be resolved through dangerous charges across wide open areas. Created “no man’s land”.

armistice (11/11/18)
Ended the bloodshed of World War 1 (signed in the eleventh minute of the eleventh hour of the eleventh day etc.)

(Henry Cabot) Lodge
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations. He led the “reservationists” in Congress.

Big Four
Name given to the four most important leaders in the post-World-War-I world: Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (French premier), David Lloyd George (British prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (Italian prime minister)

Paris Peace Conference
Conference in which negotiations over the fate of Central Powers took place

League of Nations
The precursor to the United Nations, this was a proposed union of the world powers after World War I; the brainchild of Wilson, who fought tooth-and-nail for its passage.

Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I; it was much harder on Germany than Wilson wanted but not as punitive as France and England desired. It was harsh enough, however, to set stage for Hitler’s rise of power in Germany in 1930s.

ratification debate
The intense debate over the American acceptance of the Treaty of Versailles.

isolationists
People who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs; opposed the League of Nations; opposite of internationalists

irreconcilables
Senators who voted against the League of Nations with or without amendments.

reservationists
Senators who pledged to vote in favor of the Treaty of Versailles if certain changes were made – led by Henry Cabot Lodge

internationalists
People who thought the US should try to preserve peace in the world; opposite of isolationists

Election of 1920
Election; dominated by the aftermath of WWI and the hostile reaction to Wilson; Democrats tried to make it into a referendum of League of Nations, but were foiled by Harding’s ambiguous rhetoric. Warren G. Harding (Repub.) won against Cox (Dem.).

(Warren G.) Harding
29th U.S. President. 1921-1923 (Died of natural causes). Republican. Called for a return to normalcy.

Seattle General Strike (1919)
A strike that arose from the general discontent that many workers felt post-WWI. Contributed to red scare, and was denounced as a communist movement. The Mayor threatened to use armed police.

Red Scare
Widespread fear of communism and other politically radical ideas.

(A. Mitchell) Palmer
Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he was nicknamed the “Fighting Quaker” until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the “Quaking Fighter.”

Palmer Raids (1919)
Raids led by influential attorney-general of the time on houses of suspected communists/radicals.

Sacco and Vanzetti
These were two Italian immigrants who were arrested in connection with a shooting in Massachusetts. After a controversial trial, which many deemed unfair, they were sentenced to death.

KKK
Racist, anti-immigrant clan that held much influence in the 1920s. Used violence and scare tactics to achieve its goals. (Was HORRIFIC)

isolationism
A term that describes America’s withdrawn attitude in the 1920s.

Emergency Quota Act of 1921
1921 legislation that limited immigration to 3% of the people of their nationality living in the US in 1910.

Immigration Act of 1924
This was passed in 1924–cut quotas for foreigners from 3 % to 2% of the total number of immigrants in 1890–purpose was to freeze America’s existing racial composition –prevented Japanese from immigrating, causing outrage in Japan.

prohibition
The banning of the sale and consumption of all alcoholic products.

18th Amendment (1918)
Constitutional amendment that banned the sale and consumption of alcohol.

Volstead Act (1919)
This law established a Prohibition Bureau within the Treasury Department. It was under-budgeted and largely ineffective, especially in strongly anti-prohibition states

speakeasies
“Bars” of the prohibition era; these were illicit places of social gathering.

“the noble experiment”
A derisive name given to the prohibition movement, which called attention to the unlikelihood of its success.

bootlegging
The act of making and transporting alcoholic liquor for sale illegally

Al Capone
Nicknamed “Scarface” and one of the most notorious gangsters in history, this man earned the title of “Public Enemy No. 1” for his many illegal exploits in Chicago.

gangsters
Violent organized crime members who took over the job of supplying alcohol to speakeasies.

(John) Dewey
United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education (1859-1952)

Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).

(Billy) Sunday
American fundamentalist minister; he used colorful language and powerful sermons to drive home the message of salvation through Jesus and to oppose radical and progressive groups.

Scopes Trial
A highly publicized trial in 1925 in which a teacher violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school. In the trial, William Jennings Bryan argued on the side of fundamentalism, while Clarence Darrow argued for evolution.

(Clarence) Darrow
Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools.

The Man Nobody Knows
1925 book by advertiser Bruce Barton- set forth provocative thesis that Jesus was the greatest adman of all time.

(Babe) Ruth
“The Sultan of Swat!” “The Great Bambino!” “The Colossus of Clout!” This man was one of the most famous baseball players in history; Reflected a new trend of celebrating sports heroes in the 1920s.

(Jack) Dempsey
United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight champion (1895-1983)

(Henry) Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)

(Frederick) Taylor
American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants

scientific management
A management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it

Model T
First affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black

Fordism
A system of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford

Wright Brothers
These two siblings and bike mechanics created the first functioning flying machine.

(Charles) Lindbergh
This man achieved worldwide renown when he became the first person ever to complete a transatlantic flight.

Jazz Age
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime.

radio
a communication system based on broadcasting electromagnetic waves

Birth of a Nation
Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.

The Jazz Singer
1927 – The first movie with sound; this “talkie” was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.

(Margaret) Sanger
United States nurse who campaigned for birth control and planned parenthood.

flappers
Carefree young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion

(Sigmund) Freud
(1856-1939) Founder of psychoanalysis, created the first comprehensive theory of personality. Tied many psychological processes to sexual desire.

(Marcus) Garvey
He led the Universal Negro Improvement Association and his “Back to Africa” movement inspired racial pride in the 1920s.

Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
An association that promoted black pride and black unity. It also encouraged African Americans to move permanently to Africa.

Lost Generation
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral value. They often chose to flee to Europe

(F. Scott) Fitzgerald
One of the 20th-century’s literary stars, his writing chronicled the Jazz Age. He wrote “This Side of Paradise, and his novel “The Great Gatsby” is considered an American masterpiece. (Married a woman named Zelda!)

(Ernest) Hemingway
This American author saw combat in Italy. His “The Sun Also Rises” and “A Farewell to Arms” reflected postwar disillusionment. Ended up committing suicide.

Harlem Renaissance
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished

(Langston) Hughes
A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” and “My People”

“on margin”
To buy stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest.

(Andrew) Mellon
An American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. Believed in a government “hands-off” approach to the economy.

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